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            企業自動運行系統——價格策略

            易創培訓網 2019年2月12日 作者:孟森


            一、定價的一般方法

            1、成本導向定價法

            (1)成本加成定價

            成本加成定價法是按產品單位成本加上一定比例的利潤制定產品價格的方法。大多數企業是按成本利潤率來確定所加利潤的大小的。公式如下:

            單價 = (采購價+運費+稅費)/(1 + 加成率)

            (2)目標利潤定價法

            目標利潤定價法,又稱目標收益定價法、目標回報定價法。是根據企業預期的總銷售量與總成本,確定一個目標利潤率的定價方法。計算公式如下:

            單價 = (采購價+運費+稅費)/(1 –毛利率)

            2、競爭導向定價法

            (1)隨行就市定價法

            是一種“隨大流”的定價方法,主要適用于需求彈性比較小或供求基本平衡的商品。如果某企業把價格定高了,就會失去顧客;而把價格定低了,需求和利潤也不會增加。所以,隨行就市是一種較為穩妥的定價方法。也是競爭導向定價方法中廣為流行的一種。

            (2)投標定價法

            投標定價法是大多數通過投標爭取業務的公司通常采取的競爭導向定價法。競標的目的在于爭取合同,因此公司考慮的重點是競爭者會報出何種價格。企業要想奪標,必須在其他供貨條件相同的情況下使自己的報價低于競爭對手的報價。當然,企業的報價不能低于邊際成本。

            二、目標利潤定價法

            要想把目標利潤定價法實施好,關鍵是定多少目標利潤率。因為目標利潤率主要是毛利率,如果毛利率定的過高,賣不出去,定低了,賠錢。一定要測算好兩個最為重要的數據:毛利臨界點和綜合費用率,定價的關鍵。

            1、毛利臨界點:即只要賣貨,就必須支付出去的費用占銷售額的比例。

            特點:高于毛利臨界點賣得越多,賺的越多。低于毛利臨界點,賣得越多,虧得越多。

            計算方法:(業務員提成+來貨運費+倉儲提成+發貨的運費+稅點)/銷售收入

            2、綜合費用率:所有的費用綜合占銷售額的比例

            費用包括營業費用、管理費用、財務費用所有的費用/銷售收入

            3、定價=進價/(1-綜合費用率-凈利潤率)

            三、跟隨策略

            價格跟隨是以本行業的平均價格水平為標準的報價方法。是競爭導向定價方法中廣為流行的一種。其原則是使本 企業產品的價格與競爭產品的平均價格保持一致。為了能使本企業的產品銷售不丟失訂單,當競爭對手報出比自己報價更低的價格時,采取價格跟隨的策略。

            1、我們報價后,如果市場上競爭對手博愛出比我們價格稍微低的價格,我們可以跟隨。批發企業一般在2個點以內,我們可以跟隨。如果要是價格低的很多,超過3%,甚至更低的價格,我們必須保持合理的利潤,不再跟隨。

            2、如何我們跟了,如果客戶回復,有人報出更低的價格,就不要再繼續跟隨。

            3、任何一個行業都必須有合理的利潤。勞保行業理性的毛利率一般為:批發商8%-10%,終端經銷商20%-25%,零售商25%-35%。

            4、價格不跟隨,靠什么競爭

            既然價格上不采取一直跟隨,有很多時候價格就是高的,就容易失去訂單。怎么辦?

            增加公司的增值服務。而且是競爭對手很難模仿的、獨特的增值服務。恒安勞保增值服務有“三項核心服務”。即零缺陷服務、保姆式服務、管理咨詢服務。

            恒安勞保為了落實“三項核心服務”,建立了“三大平臺”。即中國勞保行業高峰論壇、中國勞保商學院、中國勞保行業百強經銷商培育工程。

            四、低價策略

            當我們的實力不夠,影響力小的時候,又不能提供獨特的服務,就只能采取靠低價贏得訂單。還有的時候,某個品牌的年度銷售任務完不成,或者想增加銷量的時候,也可以采取降價的方法。

            采取低價策略時,要注意:

            1、一個品牌的的產品不要全線降價,只降價格敏感的2-3個品種,用這幾款產品帶動其他產品的銷售。

            2、新產品不要降價。新產品市場占有率低,降價不會增加銷量。

            3、批發商一定不要直接降價,盡量采取買一定數量產品贈貨的方式。如買20贈1、買15贈1、買10贈1。


            【作者:孟森

            上一篇:如何維護經銷商利益
            下一篇:辦公桌的狀態會如實反映一個人頭腦里的狀態
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